Search Results for 'science'


Resource: The Neurodevelopment of Autism: Recent Advances by Ge…
During the past several decades researchers have been trying to show that people with autism have definitive brain damage. However, despite the use of more sophisticated brain scanning and imaging methods that have recently become available, there is no e…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 135-140 (2009). DISPOSIT…
Field and Hineline use the term dispositioning to refer to the tendency to privilege spatially and temporally local entities in psychological explanation. In our commentary we offer reasons for agreeing with their claim that dispositioning is overly preva…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 141-147 (2009). BEYOND …
Field and Hineline (2008) develop a full-scale account of the conditions under which speakers in our culture-in the vernacular as well as in the more technical parlance of psychological theory-explain behavior by appealing to contiguous events or, in thei…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 151-155 (2009). HOW SHA…
Field and Hineline have shown how pervasive and insidious is the tendency to make dispositional attributions, even among those who criticize the practice, and they identify a bias for models of contiguous causation as one reason for this tendency. They ar…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 157-163 (2009). "BEHAVI…
Behavior analysis ironically appears to be increasingly at risk for abandoning its historic focus of moment-to-moment behaving, to other disciplines ranging from robotics and the "man-machine interface" to cognitive science where behaving is called "actio…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 36, 5-69 (2008). DISPOSITION…
"Now" is privileged in most psychological theories, which portray their processes as proceeding from moment-to-moment. As in any science, this adherence to contiguous causation hinders an account of phenomena that involve remote events or temporally ex…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 1-55, (2007). INTENTIONA…
This paper proposes an overarching philosophical framework for the analysis and interpretation of behavior that incorporates both radical behaviorism and intentional psychology in a model, "intentional behaviorism"' that additionally links the explanati…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 57-60, (2007).COMMENTARY…
Foxall's incorrect claims about behavior analysis (2007) arise from a failure to understand the stance of behavior analysis. Behavior analysis is the science of behavior; it is about behavior and not about organisms. It views behavioral events as natura…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 77-92 (2007). GORDON FOX…
"Intentional behaviorism" is Gordon Foxall's name for his proposal to mix the oil of mentalist language with the water of empiricist behaviorism. The trouble is, oil and water don't mix. To remain scientific, the language of behavioral science must rema…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 113-130, (2007). COMMENT…
Professor Foxall suggests the radical behaviorist language of contingencies is fine as far as it goes, and is quite suitable for matters of prediction and control. However, he argues that radical behaviorist language is extensional, and that it is neces…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 131-138 (2007). A BEHAVI…
According to Foxall (2007), simple acts may best be explained in terms of behavior of the organism as a whole, but complex behavioral patterns, usually described by mental terms, can only be explained by neurocognitive psychology, in which the mind is …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 39-58 (2006). WHY NEURAL…
A central issue in philosophy and neuroscience is the problem of unified visual consciousness. This problem has arisen because we now know that an object's stimulus features (e.g., its color, texture, shape, etc.) generate activity in separate areas of …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 59-70 (2006). ARE CURREN…
Two radically different families of theory currently compete for acceptance among theorists of human consciousness. The majority of theorists believe that the human brain somehow causes consciousness, but a significant minority holds that how the brain …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 71-87 (2006). OF WHAT VA…
The book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (2003) is an engaging criticism of cognitive neuroscience from the perspective of a Wittgensteinian philosophy of ordinary language. The authors' main claim is that assertions like "the brain sees" and …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, vii-ix (2005). EDITORIAL…
An important role of the philosophy of science is to invite scientists to analyze their tacit networks. In the process, ambiguity may be exposed, missing steps in arguments identified, and unwarranted assumptions revealed. Attempts to solve these probl…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 17-40 (2005). THE REFLEX…
The Reflexive Theory of Perception (RTP) claims that perception of an object or property X by an organism Z consists in Z being caused by X to acquire some disposition D toward X itself. This broadly behavioral perceptual theory explains perceptual int…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 101-131 (2005). PAUL E.M…
Paul E. Meehl and B. F. Skinner, two of the foremost psychological theorists of the 20th century, overlapped at the University of Minnesota in the early 1940s when Skinner was a faculty member and Meehl was a graduate student. Though Skinner was well a…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 5-12 (2004). BEHAVIORISM…
The evolution of behaviorism from its explicit beginning with John B. Watson's declaration in 1913 to the behaviorisms of the present is considered briefly. Contributions of behaviorism to scientific psychology then and now are critically assessed, arr…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 197-229 (2004). IS THE O…
The operant contingency remains the most powerful and flexible single technology for the production and control of purposive behavior. The immediate aim of this paper is to examine the conceptual and empirical adequacy of the operant contingency as the…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 231-242 (2004). SCIENTIF…
E.O. Wilson and B.F. Skinner have argued for an evolutionary ethics that allows what ought to be to be derived from what is-ethics from science. Evolution is inherently unpredictable, however, and some practices whose benefits cannot be proved might ne…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 247-268 (2004). UNCOVERI…
In his highly influential The Interpretation of Cultures, anthropologist Clifford Geertz argues that the study of culture ought to be "not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning." I argue that the two need …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 273-291 (2004). BERTRAND…
Although numerous aspects of Bertrand Russell's philosophical views have been discussed, his views about the nature of the mind and the place of psychology within modern science have received less attention. In particular, there has been little discussi…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 293-303 (2004). THE PERI…
Despite its diminished importance amongst philosophers, the deductivenomological framework is still important to contemporary behavioral scientists. Behavioral theorists operating within this framework must be careful to distinguish between nesting and…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 313-315 (2004). PRAGMATI…
Leigland notes that the relation between radical behaviorism and pragmatism is complex and cites Richard Rorty as an exemplar of pragmatism. But Rorty promotes a bizarre version of pragmatism, not to be associated with radical behaviorism or with pragm…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 453-464 (2004). REDESCRI…
In its quest to become more scientific, many have held that social science should more closely emulate the methodology of natural science. This has proven difficult and has led some to assert the impossibility of a science of human behavior. I maintain,…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 465-478 (2004). ON "SOCI…
Scientific knowledge as opposed to common-sense knowledge entails a methodological revolution based on a search not for essences, in Aristotelian sense, but for mathematical functions, in Galilean sense, originated from the controlled experiment and fo…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 31, 63-80 (2003). EFFECTIVEN…
In this article we examine some of the relations between behavior analysis and the pragmatic philosophy of William James. We point out that the adoption of effectiveness as a truth criterion is common to both systems, which warrants a closer examinatio…
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