Search Results for 'science'


Event: 11th Annual Conference on Autism & Related Disorders: Re…
11th Annual West Coast Conference on Autism & Related Disorders: Research-Based Solutions Register Friday, April 27, 2018 Registration 7:30 am Presentations 8:30 am - 4:45 pm Sign out 4:45 pm  A one-day conference featuring…
Page: About Us
The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies is a nonprofit organization that harnesses the expertise of hundreds of behavioral scientists to solve problems in the home, school, community, and the workplace.  Mission The Cambridge Center is a charit…
Group: Autism
Advice for Parents on Selecting Appropriate Treatments     The Autism Section of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies web site presents a scientific view of the causes of Autism and the Applied Behavior Analysis approach to its trea…
Group: Behavioral Economics
Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and their uniqueness when compared to establ…
Group: Neuroscience
From Skinner (e.g., 1938, 1974) on behavioral scientists have been interested in a unified, rigorous, scientific approach to the interplay between behavior and neurophysiology. The purpose of this section of the website is to present the work of behaviora…
Group: Behavior in Organizations
Welcome to the Behavior in Organizations section of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. We invite you to interact with our site by exploring the sections below, which will be updated and revised on a continual basis. Our aim is to provide you wit…
Group: Safety
Welcome to the Behavioral Safety section of The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies! PLEASE CLICK ON THE SERVICES TAB BELOW FOR INFORMATION ON ACCREDITATION OF SAFE WORK ENVIRONMENTS. Behavioral Safety is the application of behavior science to occup…
Group: Verbal Behavior & Language
Welcome to Cambridge Center's section dedicated to verbal behavior. Behavioral science views language as verbal behavior (e.g., speaking, writing, signing) that comes about by interacting with others, called the verbal community. From this view, verbal …
Resource: Crete 2010 Congress on Behavioral Studies
Ninth Congress on Behavioral Studies. The Congress was founded in 1992 by Emilio Ribes-Inesta and Peter Harzem as the International Congress on Behaviorism and the Sciences of Behavior. The Congress has been held in alternate years, in many different cou…
Resource: Overview of Green Behavior Science
PowerPoint Slides from a lecture by Mark Alavosius, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno giving an overview of 'green behavior science.'
Resource: Animal Behavior - Article
Animal Behavior - Providing Enrichment at No Cost, Part II by Hilda Tresz, Arizona Trail Keeper, The Phoenix Zoo, Arizona
Resource: About Autism
About Autism provides background information about Autism, including a brief discussion of its causes and etiology, effective treatments, and definition of the pervasive developmental disorders that make up the Autism Spectrum.
Resource: Perception, Expectancy, and Belief: Barriers to Measu…
Applications of behavior science have resulted in tremendous gains across a range of human endeavors, especially with children with special needs. A quality education program is derived from a thorough understanding of behavior analysis, stresses individu…
Resource: What Works Clearinghouse: Single-Case Design Technica…
The What Works Clearing House of the Institute of Education Sciences is now accepting single-subject research as scientific evidence.
Resource: Chelation Therapy: Warning by the Food and Drug Admin…
Thomas Zane, Ph.D., BCBA-D, shares his column, "Science, Fads, and Applied Behavior Analysis" with the Cambridge Center.
Resource: A Review of Craniosacral Therapy by Thomas Zane, Ph.D.
Thomas Zane, Ph.D., BCBA-D, shares his column, "Science, Fads, and Applied Behavior Analysis" with the Cambridge Center.
Resource: STAMPPP, A multimedia package for parents & professio…
News from Mickey Keenan about the project Science and the Treatment of Autism: A Multimedia Package for Parents and Professionals (STAMPPP)
Resource: Relationship Development Intervention: A Review of It…
Thomas Zane, Ph.D., BCBA-D, shares his column, "Science, Fads, and Applied Behavior Analysis" with the Cambridge Center.
Resource: Who are You Going to Believe, Me or Your Own Eyes: Th…
Thomas Zane, Ph.D., BCBA-D, shares his column, "Science, Fads, and Applied Behavior Analysis" with the Cambridge Center.
Resource: The Vaccine and Autism Connection: The Wakefield Stud…
Thomas Zane, PhD, BCBA-D, shares his column, "Science, Fads, and Applied Behavior Analysis" with the Cambridge Center.
Resource: Education That Works: Selected for Success: How Heads…
Reading proficiency is a crucial foundation for success in all academic areas, yet we are a nation faced with a reading crisis. Four in ten children have literacy problems, and over 40% of our nation's fourth graders score below basic reading levels (Nati…
Resource: A Case Study in the Misrepresentation of Applied Beha…
This article presents a case study in the misrepresentation of applied behavior analysis for autism based on Morton Ann Gernsbacher's presentation of a lecture titled "The Science of Autism: Beyond the Myths and Misconceptions." Her misrepresentations inv…
Resource: What is Evidence? (2010). Pennypacker, H.S. Conferenc…
The term 'evidence based' is in widespread use. But what, exactly, is evidence? The historical and cultural uses of the term will be examined, leading to a critical discussion of what should constitute evidence supporting a science of behavior. Implicatio…
Resource: The Neurodevelopment of Autism: Recent Advances by Ge…
During the past several decades researchers have been trying to show that people with autism have definitive brain damage. However, despite the use of more sophisticated brain scanning and imaging methods that have recently become available, there is no e…
Resource: Bibliography for "Is ABA Evidence-Based?"
Bibliography of Reviews of the Evidence for Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention by Independent Panels, by meta-analysis, and by Peer Review.
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 42, 37-64 (2014). ARE NEUROR…
ABSTRACT: Are the available conceptual foundations, the statistical techniques, and the empirical data of cognitive neuroscience sufficiently robust to serve as foundations for an overarching neuroreductionist explanation of the mind-brain relationship? T…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 41, 1-10 (2013). WE ARE ALL …
ABSTRACT: Methodological and radical behaviorisms have been contrasted not only with respect to their consideration, or lack thereof, of private psychological events, but also with respect to their criteria for scientificity. Skinner (1945), in particula…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 41, 11-32 (2013). NON-HUMEAN…
ABSTRACT: Behavior analysis exemplifies a highly peculiar type of explanation in which behavior is said to arise from past interactions with the environment rather than from internal mental states. Radical behaviorism has been advanced as a philosophy of …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 41, 33-59 (2013). FILLING TH…
ABSTRACT: It is often said, especially in philosophy and the neuroscience literature, that Skinner defended an anti-physiological position on the explanation of behavior. Aside from this, behavior analysts who discuss the relation between behavior analysi…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 41, 70-75 (2013). WHY I AM N…
ABSTRACT: Watson set the initial parameters for a science of behavior. The experimental analysis of behavior as developed by Skinner still has much work to do before claiming to be the science of behavior. The cultural environment has been shaping the be…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 1-16 (2011). A BEHAVI…
ABSTRACT: In Feelings: The Perception of Self, Laird deftly synthesizes decades of research supporting the self-perception theory of emotion and feeling, providing an account of these phenomenon that is compatible with radical behaviorism. Beginning with …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 17-43 (2011/2012). A …
At present there is no explanation for the mind/brain relationship; it is hard to conceive mentalistic explanations in terms of mechanistic explanations, where mechanistic explanations refer to explanations common in the sciences such as neurophysiologica…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 93-102 (2011/2012). M…
ABSTRACT: Rakover has thought about the nature of explanation for a long time and he has written some insightful pieces on the possibility of incorporating mentalistic language into serious explanations of our activities. Here he takes an extreme tack and…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 107-125 (2011/2012). …
ABSTRACT: First I comment on the reasons that motivated me to develop the approach of Methodological Dualism (MD) and Multi-Explanation Framework (MEF) and present a brief summary of its main ideas; second, I respond to the commentators' criticisms; fin…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 345-353 (2011/2012). …
Chemero, Anthony. (2009). Radical embodied cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, MIT Press. Students of psychology are taught to regard the Representational Theory of Mind as a relatively new invention, attached to the rise of modern compute…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 1-29 (2010). IS NEUROSCI…
The widespread use of brain imaging techniques encourages conceiving of neuroscience as the forthcoming "mindscience". Perhaps surprisingly for many, this conclusion is still largely unwarranted. The present paper surveys various shortcomings of neuroscie…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 83-101 (2010). MAN AS MA…
Some years ago I was pleased to attend a colloquium at my university presented by the first author, the psychologist Randy Gallistel. After describing some behavioral studies with rats, he concluded that the animals had counted their responses. Following …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 125-127 (2010). REMARKS.…
I occasionally announce to students that the first obligation of any good behaviorist is to conform to the laws of behavior. After all, if behaviorists flouted the laws of behavior why should anyone else obey them, and where would our Science be then? The…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 133-136 (2010). REMARKS.…
I suggested last time that cognition and stimulus control are essentially the same field, that the analytic units appropriate to a science of knowing should be the same units with which we analyze relations between behavior and its controlling environment…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 141-144 (2010). REMARKS …
In Tactics of Scientific Research (Sidman, 1960/1988) I expressed my opinion that most philosophers of science know little or nothing about how scientific research is actually carried out. It appeared to me that the philosophy and the tactics of science h…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 145-148 (2010). MURRAY S…
I have always thought of Sidman's classic text, known affectionately as Tactics (1960), as primarily a philosophy of science text. I was surprised to learn that Sidman himself did not see it as particularly relevant to the philosophy of science (Sidman 20…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 169-171 (2010). THE SCIE…
The core analytic unit in any evolutionary perspective is variation and selective retention. Behavior analysis has always been part of the community of evolution sciences, but in some ways it is the most thorough going because it is most willing to consid…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 3-19 (2009). THE ROLE O…
Like most other sciences, behavior analysis adopts an assumption of uniformity, namely that principles discovered under controlled conditions apply outside the laboratory as well. Since the boundary between public and private depends on the vantage point …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 87-104 (2009). INTENTIO…
Discrepancies between animal and human responding on standard schedules of reinforcement have been explained by reference to the human capacity for language and consequent formulation of self-instructions. As a result, schedule responding has been causall…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 119-125 (2009). WHY DIS…
This commentary discusses the major claims and arguments presented by Field and Hineline (2008) against the general use of dispositional causal explanations in science and psychology and in favor of an alternative account that applies to cases in which ca…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 135-140 (2009). DISPOSIT…
Field and Hineline use the term dispositioning to refer to the tendency to privilege spatially and temporally local entities in psychological explanation. In our commentary we offer reasons for agreeing with their claim that dispositioning is overly preva…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 141-147 (2009). BEYOND …
Field and Hineline (2008) develop a full-scale account of the conditions under which speakers in our culture-in the vernacular as well as in the more technical parlance of psychological theory-explain behavior by appealing to contiguous events or, in thei…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 151-155 (2009). HOW SHA…
Field and Hineline have shown how pervasive and insidious is the tendency to make dispositional attributions, even among those who criticize the practice, and they identify a bias for models of contiguous causation as one reason for this tendency. They ar…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 37, 157-163 (2009). "BEHAVI…
Behavior analysis ironically appears to be increasingly at risk for abandoning its historic focus of moment-to-moment behaving, to other disciplines ranging from robotics and the "man-machine interface" to cognitive science where behaving is called "actio…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 36, 5-69 (2008). DISPOSITION…
"Now" is privileged in most psychological theories, which portray their processes as proceeding from moment-to-moment. As in any science, this adherence to contiguous causation hinders an account of phenomena that involve remote events or temporally ex…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 1-55, (2007). INTENTIONA…
This paper proposes an overarching philosophical framework for the analysis and interpretation of behavior that incorporates both radical behaviorism and intentional psychology in a model, "intentional behaviorism"' that additionally links the explanati…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 57-60, (2007).COMMENTARY…
Foxall's incorrect claims about behavior analysis (2007) arise from a failure to understand the stance of behavior analysis. Behavior analysis is the science of behavior; it is about behavior and not about organisms. It views behavioral events as natura…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 77-92 (2007). GORDON FOX…
"Intentional behaviorism" is Gordon Foxall's name for his proposal to mix the oil of mentalist language with the water of empiricist behaviorism. The trouble is, oil and water don't mix. To remain scientific, the language of behavioral science must rema…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 113-130, (2007). COMMENT…
Professor Foxall suggests the radical behaviorist language of contingencies is fine as far as it goes, and is quite suitable for matters of prediction and control. However, he argues that radical behaviorist language is extensional, and that it is neces…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 35, 131-138 (2007). A BEHAVI…
According to Foxall (2007), simple acts may best be explained in terms of behavior of the organism as a whole, but complex behavioral patterns, usually described by mental terms, can only be explained by neurocognitive psychology, in which the mind is …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 39-58 (2006). WHY NEURAL…
A central issue in philosophy and neuroscience is the problem of unified visual consciousness. This problem has arisen because we now know that an object's stimulus features (e.g., its color, texture, shape, etc.) generate activity in separate areas of …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 59-70 (2006). ARE CURREN…
Two radically different families of theory currently compete for acceptance among theorists of human consciousness. The majority of theorists believe that the human brain somehow causes consciousness, but a significant minority holds that how the brain …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 71-87 (2006). OF WHAT VA…
The book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (2003) is an engaging criticism of cognitive neuroscience from the perspective of a Wittgensteinian philosophy of ordinary language. The authors' main claim is that assertions like "the brain sees" and …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, vii-ix (2005). EDITORIAL…
An important role of the philosophy of science is to invite scientists to analyze their tacit networks. In the process, ambiguity may be exposed, missing steps in arguments identified, and unwarranted assumptions revealed. Attempts to solve these probl…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 17-40 (2005). THE REFLEX…
The Reflexive Theory of Perception (RTP) claims that perception of an object or property X by an organism Z consists in Z being caused by X to acquire some disposition D toward X itself. This broadly behavioral perceptual theory explains perceptual int…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 101-131 (2005). PAUL E.M…
Paul E. Meehl and B. F. Skinner, two of the foremost psychological theorists of the 20th century, overlapped at the University of Minnesota in the early 1940s when Skinner was a faculty member and Meehl was a graduate student. Though Skinner was well a…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 5-12 (2004). BEHAVIORISM…
The evolution of behaviorism from its explicit beginning with John B. Watson's declaration in 1913 to the behaviorisms of the present is considered briefly. Contributions of behaviorism to scientific psychology then and now are critically assessed, arr…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 197-229 (2004). IS THE O…
The operant contingency remains the most powerful and flexible single technology for the production and control of purposive behavior. The immediate aim of this paper is to examine the conceptual and empirical adequacy of the operant contingency as the…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 231-242 (2004). SCIENTIF…
E.O. Wilson and B.F. Skinner have argued for an evolutionary ethics that allows what ought to be to be derived from what is-ethics from science. Evolution is inherently unpredictable, however, and some practices whose benefits cannot be proved might ne…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 247-268 (2004). UNCOVERI…
In his highly influential The Interpretation of Cultures, anthropologist Clifford Geertz argues that the study of culture ought to be "not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning." I argue that the two need …
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