Search Results for 'Behavior and Philosophy'


Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 41, 11-32 (2013). NON-HUMEAN…
ABSTRACT: Behavior analysis exemplifies a highly peculiar type of explanation in which behavior is said to arise from past interactions with the environment rather than from internal mental states. Radical behaviorism has been advanced as a philosophy of …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 165-168 (2010). EXPANDIN…
"[R]esearch reports. . .in applied behaviour analysis seem to emphasize experimental design at the expense of the study's substantive aims. It is sometimes difficult to brush away the uncomfortable impression that design is becoming an end in itself, that…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 71-87 (2006). OF WHAT VA…
The book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience (2003) is an engaging criticism of cognitive neuroscience from the perspective of a Wittgensteinian philosophy of ordinary language. The authors' main claim is that assertions like "the brain sees" and …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 89-107 (2006). CLASSIC E…
I analyze the theoretical tenets of early ethology and the criticisms leveled against it from comparative psychology. Early ethology had a clear research object, the study of behavioral adaptedness. Adaptedness was explained by the functional rules and …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 34, 109-121 (2006). HUMAN BE…
Language has been traditionally considered as a special psychological or behavioral phenomenon, with a logical status similar to other phenomena such as learning, memory, and thinking. Based on Wittgenstein's notion of language game, I argue that langu…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, vii-ix (2005). EDITORIAL…
An important role of the philosophy of science is to invite scientists to analyze their tacit networks. In the process, ambiguity may be exposed, missing steps in arguments identified, and unwarranted assumptions revealed. Attempts to solve these probl…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 1-16 (2005). THE FUNCTIO…
This paper deals with the functions of intentional explanations of actions (IEAs), i.e., explanations that refer to intentional states (beliefs, desires, etc.) of the agent. IEAs can have different formats. We consider these different formats to be inst…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 17-40 (2005). THE REFLEX…
The Reflexive Theory of Perception (RTP) claims that perception of an object or property X by an organism Z consists in Z being caused by X to acquire some disposition D toward X itself. This broadly behavioral perceptual theory explains perceptual int…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 41-54 (2005). WHAT MULLE…
Johannes Muller's law of specific nerve energies (LOSNE) states that the mind has access not to objects in the world but only to our nerves. This law implies that the contents of the mind have no qualities in common with environmental objects but serve …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 55-65 (2005). ANTIREALIS…
Some operant theorists have argued that the most fundamental concepts of behavior analysis have antirealist implications: for example, that stimuli have no physical properties, that we have no epistemic access to a physical world, that the world exists …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 67-79 (2005). BEHAVIORAL…
Tonneau attributes an antirealist position to my writing. In my reply I argue that my position is not antirealist, but a-ontological. I subsequently consider the implications of Tonneau's core arguments in light of my a-ontological position and find th…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 81-84 (2005). BEHAVIOR A…
Some operant theorists have argued that the most fundamental concepts of behavior analysis have antirealist implications: for example, that stimuli have no physical properties, that we have no epistemic access to a physical world, that the world exists …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 85-89 (2005). A MAN OF M…
A brief, personalized biographical sketch of the late Paul E. Meehl by a longtime colleague and friend. Through it, the author pays tribute to Meehl and provides an historical context and general backdrop for the accompanying articles by Kurt Salzinger …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 91-99 (2005). CLINICAL,…
Accurate prediction of behavior is a critical task for the psychologist, particularly for the practitioner. Outstanding among those who have successfully wrestled with this complicated task is Paul Meehl. Yet, small has been the influence of his work on…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 33, 101-131 (2005). PAUL E.M…
Paul E. Meehl and B. F. Skinner, two of the foremost psychological theorists of the 20th century, overlapped at the University of Minnesota in the early 1940s when Skinner was a faculty member and Meehl was a graduate student. Though Skinner was well a…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 5-12 (2004). BEHAVIORISM…
The evolution of behaviorism from its explicit beginning with John B. Watson's declaration in 1913 to the behaviorisms of the present is considered briefly. Contributions of behaviorism to scientific psychology then and now are critically assessed, arr…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 13-35 (2004). ON THE CON…
In the early twentieth century psychology became the study of "behavior." This article reviews developments within animal psychology, functional psychology, and American society and culture that help explain how a term rarely used in the first years of …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 37-54 (2004). LOGICAL PO…
According to the standard account, logical positivism was the philosophical foundation of psychological neo-behaviorism. Smith (1986) has questioned this interpretation, suggesting that neo-behaviorism drew its philosophical inspiration from a differen…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 55-68 (2004). BEHAVIOR I…
In this paper I discuss (1) the nontechnical nature of the term "behavior"; (2) the need to revisit the Aristotelian concept of soul as the prime naturalistic subject matter of psychology; (3) the incompleteness of meaning when behavior is identified wi…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 69-95 (2004). REALISM AB…
Behavior analysis emphasizes the study of overt animal (human and nonhuman) behavior as a subject matter in its own right. This paper provides a metaphysical foundation for such an emphasis via an elucidation of a thesis that I generically call "realis…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 97-123 (2004). CONSCIOU…
Brain-centered theories of consciousness seem to face insuperable difficulties. While some philosophers now doubt that the hard problem of consciousness will ever be solved, others call for radically new approaches to conscious experience. In this arti…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 125-147 (2004). MINDING …
There is a conflict of interest in behaviorism between diction and content, between clean speech and effective speech, between what we say and what we know. This article gives a framework for speech that is both clean and effective, that respects graded…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 149-166 (2004). CAUSAL T…
On a causal theory of rational behavior, behavior is just a causal consequence of the reasons an actor has. One of the difficulties with this theory has been the possibility of the "wayward causal chains," according to which reasons can cause the expec…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 167-177 (2004). PSYCHOLO…
Causal explanations of behavior must distinguish two kinds of cause. There are (what I call) triggering causes, the events or conditions that come before the effect and are followed regularly by the effect, and (what I call) structuring causes, events t…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 179-195 (2004). FROM DAR…
Modern cognitive psychology presents itself as the revolutionary alternative to behaviorism, yet there are blatant continuities between modern cognitivism and the mechanistic kind of behaviorism that cognitivists have in mind, such as their commitment …
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 197-229 (2004). IS THE O…
The operant contingency remains the most powerful and flexible single technology for the production and control of purposive behavior. The immediate aim of this paper is to examine the conceptual and empirical adequacy of the operant contingency as the…
Resource: Behavior and Philosophy, 32, 231-242 (2004). SCIENTIF…
E.O. Wilson and B.F. Skinner have argued for an evolutionary ethics that allows what ought to be to be derived from what is-ethics from science. Evolution is inherently unpredictable, however, and some practices whose benefits cannot be proved might ne…
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