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Behavior and Philosophy



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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 345-353 (2011/2012). THE HOPE OF A RADICALLY EMBODIED SCIENCE. Alan Costall.
Chemero, Anthony. (2009). Radical embodied cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, MIT Press. Students of psychology are taught to regard the Representational Theory of Mind as a relatively new invention, attached to the rise of modern computer technologies. Yet, as Jerry Fodor-for once-rightly pointed out,
Tags: Radically Embodied Science, Anthony Chemero, Alan Costall
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 355-356 (2011/2012). REPLY TO PROFESSOR COSTALL. Anthony Chemero.
A reply to the review of "Radical Embodied Cognitive Science" by Alan Costall.
Tags: Costall, Radical Embodied Cognitive Science, Turvey, Shaw, Anthony Chemero
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Behavior and Philosophy, Current Volume, 38, vii-viii (2010). EDITOR'S FOREWORD, Jay Moore.
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, Journals, B&P
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Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 1-29 (2010). IS NEUROSCIENCE ADEQUATE AS THE FORTHCOMING "MINDSCIENCE" Riccardo Manzotti and Paolo Moderato.
The widespread use of brain imaging techniques encourages conceiving of neuroscience as the forthcoming "mindscience". Perhaps surprisingly for many, this conclusion is still largely unwarranted. The present paper surveys various shortcomings of neuroscience as a putative "mindscience". The analysis shows that the scope of mind (both cognitive and phenomenal) falls outside that of neuroscience. Of course, such a conclusion does not endorse any metaphysical or antiscientific stance as to the nature of the mind. Rather, it challenges a series of assumptions that the undeniable success of neuroscience has fostered. In fact, physicalism is here taken as the only viable ontological framework-an assumption that does not imply that the central nervous system exhausts the physical domain. There are other options like behavior, embodiment, situatedness, and externalism that are worth considering. Likewise, neuroscience is not the only available epistemic option as to the understanding of mind.
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, neuroscience, dualism, brain imaging, psychology, reductionism, mindscience
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Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 31-48 (2010). MORALITY: WHAT IN THE WORLD IS IT?, Max Hocutt.
Half a century ago, Elizabeth Anscombe reminded us that we of the West think of morality as a kind of law-viz., a moral law. As originally conceived, this law consisted of heavenly commands delivered to a favored clan and known only by the privileged few who could read sacred scripture. However, the history of philosophy has been largely a tale of attempts to show that a law-like morality is binding on all men everywhere and known, like the truths of arithmetic and logic, by an exercise of a priori reason. Yet, morality as everywhere practiced is neither divine commands nor universal principles of thought. Instead, it is variable customs worked out by the members of diverse groups to help them get along with each other while they serve their biologically based needs. These customs are taught using rewards and punishment, they are revealed by observing behavior, and they are evaluated by measuring how they contribute to group welfare and individual flourishing. It follows that if we want to understand our mo
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, morality, moral intuition, moral law, custom, reason, law, utility, Aquinas, Kant, Plato
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Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 49-59 (2010). IS JUSTIFIED TRUE BEHAVIOR KNOWLEDGE? Frank Hammonds
Edmund Gettier (1963) argued against defining knowledge as justified true belief. Using two examples, he demonstrated that (a) believing a proposition to be true, (b) having justification for that belief, and (c) the proposition in fact being true, do not constitute sufficient conditions for one to be said to know the proposition. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the utility of a behavioral definition of justified true belief. I will define "justified,"
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, Gettier, epistemology, behaviorism, justified, true, belief
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Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 61-81 (2010). REPLY TO COMMENTARIES ON FIELD & HINELINE'S "DISPOSITIONING AND THE OBSCURED ROLES OF TIME IN PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS." Philip N. Hineline.
Six of the seven commentaries expressed basic agreement with our characterization of dispositioning as a typically unacknowledged, pervasive, and often problematic explanatory practice. One of these (Glenn) situated our own interpretive activity within the interpretation itself. Two others (Ruiz and Gergen) advocated expanding the scope of our analysis—Ruiz addressing a dilemma that confronts feminist advocacy, and Gergen surveying a broader range of societal issues. Petrusz and Turvey, as well as Gergen, delineated affinities between our behavior-analytic stance and their own preferred viewpoints (ecological perception theory and social constructionism, respectively). Palmer and Shimp focused on our discussion of temporal scales of analysis, both favoring reductionistic accounts anchored upon the time-scale of direct observation/experience. In contrast, Field and I argued that phenomena on particular scales, whether small or large, can potentially stand on their own; even constraint by process at one scale
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, dispositioning, attribution theory, scales of analysis, bipolar constraints in language, feminist theory
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Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 83-101 (2010). MAN AS MACHINE: A REVIEW OF MEMORY AND THE COMPUTATIONAL BRAIN: WHY COGNITIVE SCIENCE WILL TRANSFORM NEUROSCIENCE BY C. R. GALLISTEL AND A. P. KING. John W. Donahoe.
Some years ago I was pleased to attend a colloquium at my university presented by the first author, the psychologist Randy Gallistel. After describing some behavioral studies with rats, he concluded that the animals had counted their responses. Following the talk, I ventured that surely he was speaking metaphorically when he said that the rats were counting. To my surprise, he assured me that he was not; he meant it literally! The book under review, co-authored with the computer scientist Adam King, describes the thinking behind this and related assertions about the behavioral and neural processes involved in complex behavior, especially memory.
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Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 103-111 (2010). RESPONSE TO DONAHOE REVIEW. Charles Randy Gallistel.
I thank Donahoe for a thoughtful and thorough review that fairly describes the book’s core arguments. Donahoe's criticisms and comments provide an opportunity to amplify on some of our key arguments in ways that I hope will contribute to a fuller understanding of them. As Donahoe points out, Shannon's theory of communication, from which the modern mathematical definition of information comes, is central to our argument. The one-sentence essence of our argument is that: "The function of memory is to carry information forward in time in a computationally accessible form." For this argument to have substance, it must be clear what information is; hence, that is where our book begins.
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Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 113-115 (2010). PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION: MURRAY SIDMAN'S REMARKS. Per Holth and Jay Moore.
The European Journal of Behavior Analysis and Behavior and Philosophy are pleased to jointly recognize the contributions of Dr. Murray Sidman to the discipline of behavior analysis.

From 1976 to 1981, the journal then titled Behaviorism, now Behavior and Philosophy, published a series of six short articles by Dr. Sidman on various topics in behavior analysis. At our request, he recently prepared a seventh article in the same style as the originals. We then invited eight distinguished individuals to comment on these articles, and Dr. Sidman to reply to the comments. Our journals are simultaneously publishing Dr. Sidman's seven articles, the peer commentary, and Dr. Sidman's replies to that commentary.
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, Murray Sidman
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