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Behavior and Philosophy



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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 103-105 (2011/2012). THE INTENTIONAL AND THE EXTENSIONAL: A RESPONSE TO RAKOVER. Gordon Foxall
ABSTRACT: In contrast to Rakover's approach, I argue that intentional and extensional accounts of behavior are incommensurable, that the former are necessary only when the capacity of the latter to explain behavior cannot be empirically sustained, and that the intentional account takes the form of an interpretation rather than a causal description that can be reduced to functional relationships.
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, intentional behaviorism, intentionality, extensional explanation
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 107-125 (2011/2012). METHODOLOGICAL DUALISM AND MULTI-EXPLANATION FRAMEWORK: REPLIES TO CRITICISMS AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS. Sam S. Rakover.
ABSTRACT: First I comment on the reasons that motivated me to develop the approach of Methodological Dualism (MD) and Multi-Explanation Framework (MEF) and present a brief summary of its main ideas; second, I respond to the commentators' criticisms; finally, I present further developments that compare my approach to other relevant psychological approaches, and develop certain arguments as to why one should employ MD and MEF.
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, methodology, explanation, philosophy of science, mind, and psychology, Rakover
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 127-144 (2011/2012). EXPELLING THE MEME-GHOST FROM THE MACHINE: AN EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATION FOR THE SPREAD OF CULTURAL PRACTICES. Carsta Simon and William M. Baum.
Memes, defined in terms of ideas, mental representations or information, are used in an attempt to explain the spread of cultural practices. We argue that such reference to hidden replicators, which are said to have causal effects on a person
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, Agency, behavior, category mistakes, cultural evolution, cultural practices, cultural replicator, dualism, memes, mentalism, selection, Carsta Simon, William M. Baum
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Behavior and Philosophy. 39/40. 145-202 (2011/2012). METHODOLOGICAL BEHAVIORISM AS A RADICAL BEHAVIORIST VIEWS IT. J. Moore.
ABSTRACT: Methodological behaviorism is a stance on verbal processes and the meaning of "psychological" terms and concepts that are deployed in theories and explanations of behavior. According to this stance, all such terms and concepts should be based on observable stimuli and behavior. Over the years, psychologists have interpreted the phrase "based on" in at least three different ways. One interpretation was that psychologists should remain formally silent on causal mental terms, and not speak at all about unobservables. A second interpretation allowed psychologists to appeal indirectly to mediating mental terms, provided the psychologists could logically connect the terms to observables through operational definitions. This time, however, the definitions need be only partial instead of exhaustive. We argue the interpretations lead to an incomplete psychology, if not also an institutionalized mentalism, because they fail to recognize private behavioral events. None of the interpretations are consistent wit
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism, operationism, logical positivism, theoretical terms, psychological terms
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 203-301 (2011/2012). CYBERRAT, INTERBEHAVIORAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, AND A
This monograph introduces the functional characteristics and conceptual significance of a simulation software system called
Tags: Interbehavioral Systems Analysis, CyberRat, Turing test, behavior analysis, structural analysis, functional analysis, operations analysis, Roger D. Ray
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 303-307 (2011/2012). COMMENTARY ON CYBERRAT. Iver H. Iversen.
ABSTRACT: This commentary on the development of CyberRat points out that 1) CyberRat is an excellent educational alternative to a live rat in cases where instruction of basic operant conditioning principles cannot be carried out with live animals due to a lack of laboratory facilities, 2) CyberRat simulates a live rat very nicely as long as one expects no more than demonstrations of basic operant behavior principles (i.e., CyberRat is not suited for research into operant behavior), 3) neither a Kantorian interbehavioral analysis nor a Skinnerian functional analysis is sufficient for CyberRat to work, yet a combination of both types of analysis is in fact necessary for CyberRat to emit an adequate and realistic flow of operant behavior interceded by other (non-reinforced) behavior, 4) CyberRat has developed to the point where it certainly provides a near perfect illusion of being a single animal that quite realistically demonstrates basic operant conditioning phenomena embedded in a flow of natural behaviors.
Tags: CyberRat, Kantor, Skinner, behavioral interdependence, computer simulation, operant behavior, Iver H. Iversen
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 309-313 (2011/2012). HOW CLOSE TO REAL CAN A NON-REAL CYBERRAT BEHAVE? Brady Phelps.
ABSTRACT: The extent to which a virtual "CyberRat" is a valid stand-in for a live, behaving rat is addressed in terms of various versions of a Turing test. The CyberRat program, for the most part, is a valid substitute for a living, behaving subject as a means of learning operant principles of behavior change, if no actual behaving animal can be used. The arguments for the CyberRat's means of modeling behavior change through the philosophy of interbehaviorism and interbehavioral systems analysis are evaluated relative to the positions of Skinner
Tags: CyberRat, behavior analysis, Interbehavioral Systems Analysis, Turing Test, Brady Phelps
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 315-319 (2011/2012). DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS FUNCTIONAL ACCOUNTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EVENTS: CYBERRAT AS A CASE IN POINT. Matthew Lewon, Maria I. Munoz Blanco, and Linda J. Hayes.
ABSTRACT: While the CyberRat simulation described by Ray (2011/2012) has considerable value as an educational tool, its value also lies in the validation of the descriptive interbehavioral systems analysis (IBSA) approach upon which it was developed. The descriptive IBSA approach differs in important ways from the predominantly functional approach typically adopted by researchers in the experimental analysis of behavior (TEAB), and while TEAB has been successful in identifying many important environment
Tags: descriptive analysis, functional analysis, experimental analysis of behavior, simulations, Matthew Lewon, Maria I. Munoz Blanco, and Linda J. Hayes
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 321-329 (2011/2012). CHALLENGES IN CONCLUDING A RESEARCH PROGRAM: SOME REFLECTIONS ON REVIEWER COMMENTS REGARDING
ABSTRACT: Invited reviewer comments by Iverson (2011/2012), by Lewon, Munoz Blanco, and Hayes (2011/2012), and by Phelps (2011/2012) are reflected upon within the context of my own perceptions of selective strengths and weaknesses of my
Tags: Interbehavioral Systems Analysis, CyberRat, Turing Test, behavior analysis, functional analysis, operations analysis, time series analysis
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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 331-343 (2011/2012). METAPHOR AND TRUTH: A REVIEW OF REPRESENTATION RECONSIDERED BY W. M. RAMSEY. Fran
ABSTRACT: William M. Ramsey
Tags: representation, computation, cognition, metaphor, truth, Fran
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