Philosophy/History


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The philosophy and history section is devoted to the philosophical, historical, metaphysical, and methodological foundations of the study of behavior, brain, and mind. Here you will find articles from our flagship journal Behavior and Philosophy, as well as critical or historical reviews, videos on apparatus, and other resourceShow More

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Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 127-144 (2011/2012). EXPELLING THE MEME-GHOST FROM THE MACHINE: AN EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATION FOR THE SPREAD OF CULTURAL PRACTICES. Carsta Simon and William M. Baum.
Memes, defined in terms of ideas, mental representations or information, are used in an attempt to explain the spread of cultural practices. We argue that such reference to hidden replicators, which are said to have causal effects on a person
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, Agency, behavior, category mistakes, cultural evolution, cultural practices, cultural replicator, dualism, memes, mentalism, selection, Carsta Simon, William M. Baum
Behavior and Philosophy. 39/40. 145-202 (2011/2012). METHODOLOGICAL BEHAVIORISM AS A RADICAL BEHAVIORIST VIEWS IT. J. Moore.
ABSTRACT: Methodological behaviorism is a stance on verbal processes and the meaning of "psychological" terms and concepts that are deployed in theories and explanations of behavior. According to this stance, all such terms and concepts should be based on observable stimuli and behavior. Over the years, psychologists have interpreted the phrase "based on" in at least three different ways. One interpretation was that psychologists should remain formally silent on causal mental terms, and not speak at all about unobservables. A second interpretation allowed psychologists to appeal indirectly to mediating mental terms, provided the psychologists could logically connect the terms to observables through operational definitions. This time, however, the definitions need be only partial instead of exhaustive. We argue the interpretations lead to an incomplete psychology, if not also an institutionalized mentalism, because they fail to recognize private behavioral events. None of the interpretations are consistent wit
Tags: Behavior and Philosophy, methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism, operationism, logical positivism, theoretical terms, psychological terms
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 203-301 (2011/2012). CYBERRAT, INTERBEHAVIORAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, AND A
This monograph introduces the functional characteristics and conceptual significance of a simulation software system called
Tags: Interbehavioral Systems Analysis, CyberRat, Turing test, behavior analysis, structural analysis, functional analysis, operations analysis, Roger D. Ray
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 303-307 (2011/2012). COMMENTARY ON CYBERRAT. Iver H. Iversen.
ABSTRACT: This commentary on the development of CyberRat points out that 1) CyberRat is an excellent educational alternative to a live rat in cases where instruction of basic operant conditioning principles cannot be carried out with live animals due to a lack of laboratory facilities, 2) CyberRat simulates a live rat very nicely as long as one expects no more than demonstrations of basic operant behavior principles (i.e., CyberRat is not suited for research into operant behavior), 3) neither a Kantorian interbehavioral analysis nor a Skinnerian functional analysis is sufficient for CyberRat to work, yet a combination of both types of analysis is in fact necessary for CyberRat to emit an adequate and realistic flow of operant behavior interceded by other (non-reinforced) behavior, 4) CyberRat has developed to the point where it certainly provides a near perfect illusion of being a single animal that quite realistically demonstrates basic operant conditioning phenomena embedded in a flow of natural behaviors.
Tags: CyberRat, Kantor, Skinner, behavioral interdependence, computer simulation, operant behavior, Iver H. Iversen
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 309-313 (2011/2012). HOW CLOSE TO REAL CAN A NON-REAL CYBERRAT BEHAVE? Brady Phelps.
ABSTRACT: The extent to which a virtual "CyberRat" is a valid stand-in for a live, behaving rat is addressed in terms of various versions of a Turing test. The CyberRat program, for the most part, is a valid substitute for a living, behaving subject as a means of learning operant principles of behavior change, if no actual behaving animal can be used. The arguments for the CyberRat's means of modeling behavior change through the philosophy of interbehaviorism and interbehavioral systems analysis are evaluated relative to the positions of Skinner
Tags: CyberRat, behavior analysis, Interbehavioral Systems Analysis, Turing Test, Brady Phelps
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 315-319 (2011/2012). DESCRIPTIVE VERSUS FUNCTIONAL ACCOUNTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EVENTS: CYBERRAT AS A CASE IN POINT. Matthew Lewon, Maria I. Munoz Blanco, and Linda J. Hayes.
ABSTRACT: While the CyberRat simulation described by Ray (2011/2012) has considerable value as an educational tool, its value also lies in the validation of the descriptive interbehavioral systems analysis (IBSA) approach upon which it was developed. The descriptive IBSA approach differs in important ways from the predominantly functional approach typically adopted by researchers in the experimental analysis of behavior (TEAB), and while TEAB has been successful in identifying many important environment
Tags: descriptive analysis, functional analysis, experimental analysis of behavior, simulations, Matthew Lewon, Maria I. Munoz Blanco, and Linda J. Hayes
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 321-329 (2011/2012). CHALLENGES IN CONCLUDING A RESEARCH PROGRAM: SOME REFLECTIONS ON REVIEWER COMMENTS REGARDING
ABSTRACT: Invited reviewer comments by Iverson (2011/2012), by Lewon, Munoz Blanco, and Hayes (2011/2012), and by Phelps (2011/2012) are reflected upon within the context of my own perceptions of selective strengths and weaknesses of my
Tags: Interbehavioral Systems Analysis, CyberRat, Turing Test, behavior analysis, functional analysis, operations analysis, time series analysis
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 331-343 (2011/2012). METAPHOR AND TRUTH: A REVIEW OF REPRESENTATION RECONSIDERED BY W. M. RAMSEY. Fran
ABSTRACT: William M. Ramsey
Tags: representation, computation, cognition, metaphor, truth, Fran
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 345-353 (2011/2012). THE HOPE OF A RADICALLY EMBODIED SCIENCE. Alan Costall.
Chemero, Anthony. (2009). Radical embodied cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, MIT Press. Students of psychology are taught to regard the Representational Theory of Mind as a relatively new invention, attached to the rise of modern computer technologies. Yet, as Jerry Fodor-for once-rightly pointed out,
Tags: Radically Embodied Science, Anthony Chemero, Alan Costall
Behavior and Philosophy, 39/40, 355-356 (2011/2012). REPLY TO PROFESSOR COSTALL. Anthony Chemero.
A reply to the review of "Radical Embodied Cognitive Science" by Alan Costall.
Tags: Costall, Radical Embodied Cognitive Science, Turvey, Shaw, Anthony Chemero

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